Glipizide is an anti-diabetic drug (sulfonylurea-type) used along with a proper diet and exercise program to control high blood sugar. It is used in patients with type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes). It works by stimulating the release of your body's natural insulin. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent heart disease, strokes, kidney disease, blindness, and circulation problems, as well as sexual function problems (impotence).
The usual starting dose when using immediate release tablets is 5 mg administered 30 minutes before a meal. The maximum dose is 40 mg daily. Doses higher than 15 mg per day should be divided.
The starting dose when using extended-release tablets is 5 mg daily up to a maximum dose of 20 mg daily. Patients using immediate release tablets may be converted to the nearest equivalent extended-release dose.
Side effects include headache, dizziness, diarrhea, and gas. Skin rashes can occur and cause itching, hives, or a diffuse measles-like rash. Rare but serious side effects include hepatitis, jaundice, and a low sodium concentration. Glipizide may also cause hypoglycemia. The risk of hypoglycemia increases when glipizide is combined with other glucose reducing agents.
Before taking glipizide, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it or if you have any other allergies. This medication should not be used if you have certain medical conditions. Before using this medicine, consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have metabolic conditions (e.g., diabetic ketoacidosis). Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of liver disease, kidney disease, thyroid disease, certain hormonal conditions (adrenal/pituitary insufficiency, SIADH-syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone), electrolyte imbalance (hyponatremia). You may experience blurred vision, dizziness, or drowsiness due to extremely low or high blood sugar levels; use caution engaging in activities requiring alertness such as driving or using machinery. Limit alcohol while taking this medication because it can increase the risk of developing hypoglycemia. Alcohol can rarely interact with glipizide and cause a serious reaction (disulfiram-like reaction) with symptoms such as facial flushing, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, or stomach pain. Consult your doctor or pharmacist about the safe use of alcohol. During times of stress, such as fever, infection, injury or surgery, it may be more difficult to control your blood sugar. Consult your doctor, as a change in your medication may be required. This medication may make you more sensitive to the sun. Avoid prolonged sun exposure, tanning booths or sunlamps. Use a sunscreen and wear protective clothing when outdoors. Caution is advised when using this drug in the elderly because they may be more sensitive to its effects, especially hypoglycemia. This medication should be used only when clearly needed during pregnancy. It is not recommended for use for at least one month before delivery due to the potential for fetal harm. Insulin may be preferred during pregnancy. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor. Based on information from related drugs, this medication may pass into breast milk. Therefore, breast-feeding while using this medication is not recommended.
Many other medicines may increase or decrease the effects of glipizide or affect your condition. Before taking glipizide, tell your doctor if you are taking any of the following medicines:
·1 aspirin or another salicylate such as magnesium/choline salicylate (Trilisate), salsalate (Disalcid, others), choline salicylate (Arthropan), magnesium salicylate (Magan), or bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol);
·2 a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, Nuprin, others), ketoprofen (Orudis, Orudis KT, Oruvail), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam), etodolac (Lodine), indomethacin (Indocin), nabumetone (Relafen), oxaprozin (Daypro), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, Aleve), and others;
·3 a sulfa-based drug such as sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Bactrim, Septra), sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin), or sulfasalazine (Azulfidine);
·4 a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate), or phenelzine (Nardil);
·5 a beta-blocker such as propranolol (Inderal), atenolol (Tenormin), acebutolol (Sectral), metoprolol (Lopressor), and others;
·6 a diuretic (water pill) such as hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, Hydrodiuril), chlorothiazide (Diuril), and others;
·7 a steroid medicine such as prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone, others), methylprednisolone (Medrol, others), prednisolone (Prelone, Pediapred, others), and others;
·8 a phenothiazine such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin, Permitil), prochlorperazine (Compazine), promethazine (Phenergan), and others;
·9 phenytoin (Dilantin);
·10 isoniazid (Nydrazid); or
·11 Prescription, over-the-counter, or herbal cough, cold, allergy, or weight loss medications.
You may require a dosage adjustment or special monitoring if you are taking any of the medicines listed above.
Drugs other than those listed here may also interact with glipizide or affect your condition. Talk to your doctor and pharmacist before taking any prescription or over-the-counter medicines, including vitamins, minerals, and herbal products.
If you miss a dose, take as soon as remembered; do not take if it is almost time for the next dose, instead, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not "double-up" the dose to catch up.
Store at room temperature between 59 and 86 degrees F (between 15 and 30 degrees C) away from moisture and sunlight. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep away from children and pets.